Open Access
Acute endocrine presentations in general practice

Endocrine immune-related adverse events

VENESSA H. TSANG, Bernard Champion
Already a subscriber? Login here for full access.
Full Text: PDF




1.    Buchbinder EI, Desai A. CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways: similarities, differences, and implications of their inhibition. Am J Clin Oncol 2016; 39: 98-106.
2.    Hodi FS, O’Day SJ, McDermott DF, et al. Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 711-723.
3.    Robert C, Schachter J, Long GV, et al. Pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 2521-2532.
4.    Robert C, Long GV, Brady B, et al. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 320-330.
5.    Champiat S, Lambotte O, Barreau E, et al. Management of immune checkpoint blockade dysimmune toxicities: a collaborative position paper. Ann Oncol 2016; 27: 559-574.
6.    Weber JS, Hodi FS, Wolchok JD, et al. Safety profile of nivolumab monotherapy: a pooled analysis of patients with advanced melanoma. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35: 785-792.
7.    Sznol M, Postow MA, Davies MJ, et al. Endocrine-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade and expert insights on their management. Cancer Treat Rev 2017; 58: 70-76.
8.    Scott ES, Long GV, Guminski A, Clifton-Bligh RJ, Menzies AM, Tsang VH. The spectrum, incidence, kinetics and management of endocrinopathies with immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic melanoma. Eur J Endocrinol 2018; 178: 175-182.
9.    Horvat TZ, Adel NG, Dang TO, et al. Immune-related adverse events, need for systemic immunosuppression, and effects on survival and time to treatment failure in patients with melanoma treated with ipilimumab at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. J Clin Oncol 2015; 33: 3193-3198.
10.    Debono M, Ross RJ. What is the best approach to tailoring hydrocortisone dose to meet patient needs in 2012? Clin Endocrinol 2013; 78: 659-664.
11.    Murray RD, Ekman B, Uddin S, Marelli C, Quinkler M, Zelissen PM. Management of glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency shows notable heterogeneity - data from the EU-AIR. Clin Endocrinol 2017; 86: 340-346.
12.    Ryder M, Callahan M, Postow MA, Wolchok J, Fagin JA. Endocrine-related adverse events  following ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma: a comprehensive retrospective review from a single institution. Endocr Relat Cancer 2014; 21: 371-381.
13.    Corsello SM, Barnabei A, Marchetti P, De Vecchis L, Salvatori R, Torino F. Endocrine side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 98: 1361-1375.
14.    Min L, Hodi FS, Giobbie-Hurder A, et al. Systemic high-dose corticosteroid treatment does not improve the outcome of ipilimumab-related hypophysitis: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Cancer Res 2015; 21: 749-755.
15.    Wolchok JD, Chiarion-Sileni V, Gonzalez R, et al. Overall survival with combined nivolumab and ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med 2017; 377: 1345-1356.
16.    Gonzalez-Rodriguez E, Rodriguez-Abreu D. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: review and management of endocrine adverse events. Oncologist 2016; 21: 804-816.


Dr Tsang is Staff Specialist in the Department of Endocrinology at the Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; and Senior Lecturer in the Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health at The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW. Associate Professor Champion is an Endocrinologist and Associate Professor in Medicine at Macquarie University; and Honorary Associate Professor at Nepean Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.